Friday, December 6, 2013

You are Dust and to Dust You Shall Return

Genesis 3:19 - For dust you are and to dust you will return




You are Dust and to Dust You Shall Return – Ash Wednesday:


Remember, you are dust, and unto dust you shall return.” (Genesis 3:19), “Turn away from sin and be faithful to the Gospel.” (Mark 1:15), or “Repent, and hear the good news.” (Mark 1:15)

{3:19} By the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, until you return to the earth from which you were taken. For dust you are, and unto dust you shall return.”
Louis Segond Bible (1910)
C'est à la sueur de ton visage que tu mangeras du pain, jusqu'à ce que tu retournes dans la terre, d'où tu as été pris; car tu es poussière, et tu retourneras dans la poussière.


Sáng Thế 3:19

1934 Vietnamese Bible (VIET)
19 ngươi sẽ làm đổ mồ hôi trán mới có mà ăn, cho đến ngày nào ngươi trở về đất, là nơi mà có ngươi ra; vì ngươi là bụi, ngươi sẽ trở về bụi.

 Genesis 3:19 

Parallel Verses
New International Version
By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return."
New Living Translation
By the sweat of your brow will you have food to eat until you return to the ground from which you were made. For you were made from dust, and to dust you will return."
English Standard Version
By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.”
New American Standard Bible 
By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return."
King James Bible
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
Holman Christian Standard Bible
You will eat bread by the sweat of your brow until you return to the ground, since you were taken from it. For you are dust, and you will return to dust." 
International Standard Version
You will eat food by the sweat of your brow until you're buried in the ground, because you were taken from it. You're made from dust and you'll return to dust."
NET Bible
By the sweat of your brow you will eat food until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you will return." 
GOD'S WORD® Translation
By the sweat of your brow, you will produce food to eat until you return to the ground, because you were taken from it. You are dust, and you will return to dust."
Jubilee Bible 2000
in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread until thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken, for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
King James 2000 Bible
In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return unto the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and unto dust shall you return.
American King James Version
In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, till you return to the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are, and to dust shall you return.
American Standard Version
in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
Douay-Rheims Bible
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return to the earth, out of which thou wast taken: for dust thou art, and into dust thou shalt return. 
Darby Bible Translation
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, until thou return to the ground: for out of it wast thou taken. For dust thou art; and unto dust shalt thou return.
English Revised Version
in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.
Webster's Bible Translation
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou shalt return to the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and to dust shalt thou return.
World English Bible
By the sweat of your face will you eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. For you are dust, and to dust you shall return."
Young's Literal Translation
by the sweat of thy face thou dost eat bread till thy return unto the ground, for out of it hast thou been taken, for dust thou art, and unto dust thou turnest back.'
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary
3:16-19 The woman, for her sin, is condemned to a state of sorrow, and of subjection; proper punishments of that sin, in which she had sought to gratify the desire of her eye, and of the flesh, and her pride. Sin brought sorrow into the world; that made the world a vale of tears. No wonder our sorrows are multiplied, when our sins are so. He shall rule over thee, is but God's command, Wives, be subject to your own husbands. If man had not sinned, he would always have ruled with wisdom and love; if the woman had not sinned, she would always have obeyed with humility and meekness. Adam laid the blame on his wife; but though it was her fault to persuade him to eat the forbidden fruit, it was his fault to hearken to her. Thus men's frivolous pleas will, in the day of God's judgment, be turned against them. God put marks of displeasure on Adam. 1. His habitation is cursed. God gave the earth to the children of men, to be a comfortable dwelling; but it is now cursed for man's sin. Yet Adam is not himself cursed, as the serpent was, but only the ground for his sake. 2. His employments and enjoyments are imbittered to him. Labour is our duty, which we must faithfully perform; it is part of man's sentence, which idleness daringly defies. Uneasiness and weariness with labour are our just punishment, which we must patiently submit to, since they are less than our iniquity deserves. Man's food shall become unpleasant to him. Yet man is not sentenced to eat dust as the serpent, only to eat the herb of the field. 3. His life also is but short; considering how full of trouble his days are, it is in favour to him that they are few. Yet death being dreadful to nature, even when life is unpleasant, that concludes the punishment. Sin brought death into the world: if Adam had not sinned, he had not died. He gave way to temptation, but the Saviour withstood it. And how admirably the satisfaction of our Lord Jesus, by his death and sufferings, answered the sentence passed on our first parents! Did travailing pains come with sin? We read of the travail of Christ's soul, Isa 53:11; and the pains of death he was held by, are so called, Ac 2:24. Did subjection came in with sin? Christ was made under the law, Ga 4:4. Did the curse come in with sin? Christ was made a curse for us, he died a cursed death, Ga 3:13. Did thorns come in with sin? He was crowned with thorns for us. Did sweat come in with sin? He sweat for us, as it had been great drops of blood. Did sorrow come in with sin? He was a man of sorrows; his soul was, in his agony, exceeding sorrowful. Did death come in with sin? He became obedient unto death. Thus is the plaster as wide as the wound. Blessed be God for his Son our Lord Jesus Christ.
Pulpit Commentary
Verse 19. - In the sweat of thy face (so called, as having there its source and being there visible) shalt thou eat breadI.e. all food (vide Job 28:5Psalm 104:14Matthew 14:15;Mark 6:36). "To eat bread" is to possess the means of sustaining life (Ecclesiastes 5:16;Amos 7:12). Till thou return unto the ground (the mortality-of man is thus assumed as certain); for out of it thou wast taken. Not declaring the reason of man's dissolution, as if it were involved in his original material constitution, but reminding him that in consequence of his transgression he had forfeited the privilege of immunity from death, and must now return to the soil whence he sprung. Ἐξ η΅ς ἐλήφθης (LXX.); de qua sumptus es (Vulgate); "out of which thou wast taken" (Macdonald, Gesenius). On the use of כִּי as a relative pronoun - אַשֶׁר cf. Gesenius, ' Lex. sub nom.,' who quotes this and Genesis 4:25 as examples. Vide also Stanley Leathes, 'Hebrews Gram.,' p. 202; and 'Glassii Philologiae,' lib. 3. tr. 2, c. 15. p. 335. This use of כִּי, however, appears to be doubtful, and is not necessary in any of the examples quoted. 

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,.... Or "of thy nose" (f), sweat appearing first and chiefly on the forehead, from whence it trickles down by the nose in persons employed in hard labour; and here it takes in all the labour used in cultivating the earth for the production of herbs, and particularly of corn, of which bread is made; with respect to which there are various operations in which men sweat, such as ploughing, sowing, reaping, threshing, winnowing, grinding, sifting, kneading, and baking; and it may have regard to all methods and means by which men get their bread, and not without sweat; and even such exercises as depend upon the brain are not excused from such an expense: so that every man, let him be in what station of life he will, is not exempt, more or less, from this sentence, and so continues till he dies, as is next expressed: 
till thou return unto the ground, his original, out of which he was made; that is, until he dies, and is interred in the earth, from whence he sprung; signifying that the life of man would be a life of toil and labour to the very end of it: and nothing else can man expect in it: 
for dust thou art, and unto dust shall thou return; his body was composed of the dust, was of the earth, earthly, and should be reduced to that again by death, which is not an annihilation of man, but a bringing him back to his original; which shows what a frail creature man is, what little reason he has to be proud of himself, when he reflects from whence he came and whither he must go; see Ecclesiastes 12:7
(f) "nasi tui", Picherellus. 
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
19. till thou return unto the ground—Man became mortal; although he did not die the moment he ate the forbidden fruit, his body underwent a change, and that would lead to dissolution; the union subsisting between his soul and God having already been dissolved, he had become liable to all the miseries of this life and to the pains of hell for ever. What a mournful chapter this is in the history of man! It gives the only true account of the origin of all the physical and moral evils that are in the world; upholds the moral character of God; shows that man, made upright, fell from not being able to resist a slight temptation; and becoming guilty and miserable, plunged all his posterity into the same abyss (Ro 5:12). How astonishing the grace which at that moment gave promise of a Saviour and conferred on her who had the disgrace of introducing sin the future honor of introducing that Deliverer (1Ti 2:15).
Genesis 3:19 Additional Commentaries
Context
The Punishment of Mankind
18"Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you; And you will eat the plants of the field; 19By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return." 20Now the man called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all the living.
Cross References
Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned--
Romans 5:17
For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God's abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ!
1 Corinthians 15:47
The first man was of the dust of the earth; the second man is of heaven.
Hebrews 9:27
Just as people are destined to die once, and after that to face judgment,
Genesis 2:7
Then the LORD God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.
Genesis 3:18
It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field.
Genesis 18:27
Then Abraham spoke up again: "Now that I have been so bold as to speak to the Lord, though I am nothing but dust and ashes,
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
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In.
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Tomorrow I'm going 
                
***
Tomorrow I'm going...It's no big a deal,
It happens all the time, like fallen leaves in the park
Like flowers driven by winds onto the sidewalk, 
These are minor matters in the turbulent waters of life...

Death is hovering over my deathbed, 
Please spare me of comments, visitations, or prayers of peace 
While my breathing is going to cease
And I'm lying, waiting to bid farewell. 

These last dying moments...I wouldn't care less..
The hot and cold months on this planet.
No matter I'm rich or full of glory, 
At the end I still return to dust and ashes ...

My finite existence decisively comes to an end 
And enters the yin and yang borderlands 
I won't be bewildered at the frontier's gate
Earthly realm is on this side, the other an unimaginable and unknown fate 

I only wish my soul is always at peace,
Traveling lightly, I quicken my pace
Leaving behind those who push and pull,
While I finish my journey on earth's face...

My eyes are already closed....please don't shed tears of sympathy
Please, no flower wreaths, no offerings, nor condolences,
No videotaping, no picture taking for memories.
That would only bring stresses and strains to the surviving...

A quick look behind and life is just like a dream
I arrived naked and I'm leaving with empty hands
Many ups and downs, happy and sad moments piled high,
Now they're all cleared up...I'm stepping on board, the boat has arrived...

If you miss me...Please silently pray,
And consider a life has been liberated,
Be calm, relaxed, and gay, 
I go first, you follow behind, we'll meet again...

 image

  Poem "Tomorrow When I'm Gone". Translated by Roberto Wissai/NKBa.
Tomorrow when I'm gone...It's no big a deal,
It happens all the time, like fallen leaves in the park
Like flowers driven by winds onto the sidewalk,
These are minor matters in the turbulent waters of life...

Death is hovering over my deathbed,
Please spare me of comments, visitations, or prayers of peace
While my breathing is going to cease
And I'm lying, waiting to bid farewell.

These last dying moments...I wouldn't care less..
The hot and cold months on this planet.
No matter I'm rich or full of glory,
At the end I still return to dust and ashes ...

My finite existence decisively comes to an end
And enters the yin and yang borderlands
I won't be bewildered at the frontier's gate
Earthly realm is on this side, the other an unimaginable and unknown fate

I only wish my soul always at peace,
Traveling lightly, I quicken my pace
Leaving behind those who push and pull,
While I finish my journey on earth's face...

My eyes are already closed....please don't shed tears of sympathy
Please, no flower wreaths, no offerings, nor condolences,
No videotaping, no picture taking for memories.
That would only bring stresses and strains to the surviving...

A quick look behind and life is just like a dream
I arrived naked and I'm leaving with empty hands
Many ups and downs, happy and sad moments piled high,
Now they're all cleared up...I'm stepping on board, the boat has arrived...

If you miss me...Please silently pray,
And consider a life has been liberated,
Be calm, relaxed, and pray,
I go first, you follow behind, we'll meet again...


Translated by 
Wissai
August 14, 2013

Roberto Wissai/NKBa
- Sarah Brightman & Andrea Bocelli _Time To Say Goodbye (English Subtitles) :



- Cát Bụi - Khánh Ly :


   Mai tôi đi

                ***
Mai tôi đi...chẳng có gì quan trọng,
Lẽ thường tình, như lá rụng công viên,
Như hoa rơi trước gió ở bên thềm,
Chuyện bé nhỏ giữa giòng đời động loạn...

Trên giường bệnh, Tử Thần về thấp thoáng,
Xin miễn bàn, thăm hỏi hoặc cầu an,
Khi xác thân thoi thóp trút hơi tàn,
Nằm hấp hối đợi chờ giờ vĩnh biệt.

Khoảnh khắc cuối... Đâu còn gì tha thiết...
Những tháng ngày hàn nhiệt ở trần gian.
Dù giàu sang hay danh vọng đầy tràn,
Cũng buông bỏ trở về cùng cát bụi...

Sẽ dứt điểm đời phù du ngắn ngủi,
Để đi vào ranh giới của âm dương,
Không bàng hoàng trước ngưỡng cửa biên cương,
Bên trần tục, bên vô hình cõi lạ...

Chỉ ước nguyện tâm hồn luôn thư thả,
Với hành trang thanh nhẹ bước qua nhanh,
Quên đàng sau những níu kéo giựt dành,
Kết thúc cuộc lữ hành trên dương thế...

Mắt nhắm rồi... Xin đừng thương rơi lệ,
Đừng vòng hoa, phúng điếu hoặc phân ưu,
Đừng quay phim, chụp ảnh để dành lưu.
Gây phiền toái, nợ thêm người còn sống...

Ngoảnh nhìn lại, đời người như giấc mộng,
Đến trần truồng và đi vẫn tay không.
Bao trầm thăng, vui khổ đã chất chồng,
Nay rũ sạch...lên bờ, thuyền đến bến...

Nếu tưởng nhớ..Xin âm thầm cầu nguyện,
Nên xem như giải thoát một kiếp người,
Cứ bình tâm, thoải mái với vui tươi,
Kẻ đi trước, người sau rồi sẽ gặp...
 
Một bạn nhận xét rất hay: “Khi sinh ra mọi người cười mình khóc.      Hãy sống để đến khi mình ra đi mọi người khóc còn mình cười”.

Ca đoàn hát: “Xin vĩnh biệt mọi người.  Tôi ra đi lần cuối, không bao giờ trở lại.   Hẹn gặp trên nước Trời!”

- Xin để lại anh em (Sáng tác: Lm. Thiện Cẩm):

Thursday, December 5, 2013

History of religions



History of Religions

The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas. This period of religious history begins with the invention of writing about 5,200 years ago (3200 BCE) in the Near East. The prehistory of religion relates to a study of religious beliefs that existed prior to the advent of written records. The timeline of religion is a comparative chronology of religion.

The word "religion" as it is used today does not have an obvious pre-colonial translation into non-European languages. Daniel Dubuisson writes that "what the West and the history of religions in its wake have objectified under the name 'religion' is ... something quite unique, which could be appropriate only to itself and its own history."The history of other cultures' interaction with the religious category is therefore their interaction with an idea that first developed in Europe under the influence of Christianity.


The school of religious history called the
 Religionsgeschichtliche Schule was a 19th-century German school of thought which was the first to systematically study religion as a socio-cultural phenomenon. It depicted religion as evolving with human culture, from primitive polytheism to ethical monotheism.

History of study

The Religionsgeschichtliche Schule appeared at a time when scholarly study of the Bible and church history was flourishing in Germany and elsewhere (see higher criticism, also called the historical-critical method). The study of religion is important because it has often shaped civilizations' law and moral codes, social structure, art and music.

Overview

The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in knowledge about other cultures and religions, and also the establishment of economic and social histories of progress. The "history of religions" school sought to account for this religious diversity by connecting it with the social and economic situation of a particular group.
Typically, religions were divided into stages of progression from simple to complex societies, especially from polytheistic to monotheisticand from extempore to organized. But there are now claims that the claim "that religion evolved from polytheism to monotheism has now been discredited" (p. 1763, Man, Myth & Magic, 1995). Religions can be classified as circumcising and non-circumcising, proselytizing (attempting to convert people of other religion) and non-proselytizing. Many religions share common beliefs.

Origin

The earliest evidence of religious ideas dates back several hundred thousand years to the Middle and Lower Paleolithic periods. Archaeologists refer to apparent intentional burials of early homo sapiens from as early as 300,000 years ago as evidence of religious ideas. Other evidence of religious ideas include symbolic artifacts from Middle Stone Age sites in Africa. However, the interpretation of early paleolithic artifacts, with regard to how they relate to religious ideas, remains controversial. Archeological evidence from more recent periods is less controversial. A number of artifacts from the Upper Paleolithic (50,000-13,000) are generally interpreted by scientists as representing religious ideas. Examples of Upper Paleolithic remains associated with religious beliefs include the lion man, the Venus figurines, cave paintings from Chauvet Cave and the elaborate ritual burial from Sungir.
In the 19th century, various theories were proposed regarding the origin of religion, supplanting the earlier claims of Christianity ofurreligion. Early theorists Edward Burnett Tylor and Herbert Spencer proposed the concept of animism, while archaeologist John Lubbock used the term "fetishism". Meanwhile, religious scholar Max Müller theorized that religion began in hedonism and folklorist Wilhelm Mannhardt suggested that religion began in "naturalism", by which he meant mythological explanation of natural events. All of these theories have since been widely criticized; there is no broad consensus regarding the origin of religion.

Religion at the neolithic revolution

Through the bulk of human evolution, humans lived in small nomadic bands practicing a hunter gatherer lifestyle. The emergence of complex and organized religions can be traced to the period when humans abandoned their nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyles in order to begin farming during the Neolithic period. The transition from foraging bands to states and empires resulted in more specialized and developed forms of religion that were reflections of the new social and political environments. While bands and small tribes possess supernatural beliefs, these beliefs are adapted to smaller populations.

Neolithic religions

The religions of the Neolithic peoples provide evidence of some of the earliest known forms of organized religions. The Neolithic settlement of Çatalhöyük, in what is now Turkey, was home to about 8,000 people and remains the largest known settlement from the Neolithic period. James Mellaart, who excavated the site, believed that Çatalhöyük was the spiritual center of central Anatolia. A striking feature of Çatalhöyük are its female figurines. Mellaart, the original excavator, argued that these well-formed, carefully made figurines, carved and molded from marble, blue and brown limestone, schist, calcite, basalt, alabaster, and clay, represented a female deity of the Great Goddess type. Although a male deity existed as well, “…statues of a female deity far outnumber those of the male deity, who moreover, does not appear to be represented at all after Level VI”. To date, eighteen levels have been identified. These careful figurines were found primarily in areas Mellaart believed to be shrines. One, however – a stately goddess seated on a throne flanked by two female lions – was found in a grain bin, which Mellaart suggests might have been a means of ensuring the harvest or protecting the food supply.
The Pyramid Texts from ancient Egypt are one of the oldest known religious texts in the world dating to between 2400-2300 BCE.]Writing played a major role in sustaining organized religion by standardizing religious ideas regardless of time or location.

Value of religion

Organized religion emerged as a means of providing social and economic stability to large populations through the following ways:
  • Organized religion served to justify the central authority, which in turn possessed the right to collect taxes in return for providing social and security services to the state. The empires of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were theocracies, with chiefs, kings and emperors playing dual roles of political and spiritual leaders. Virtually all state societies and chiefdoms around the world have similar political structures where political authority is justified by divine sanction.
  • Organized religion emerged as means of maintaining peace between unrelated individuals. Bands and tribes consist of small number of related individuals. However states and nations are composed of thousands or millions of unrelated individuals. Jared Diamondargues that organized religion served to provide a bond between unrelated individuals who would otherwise be more prone to enmity. He argues that the leading cause of death among hunter gatherer societies is murder.

Axial age

The period from 900 to 200 BCE has been described by historians as the axial age, a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers. According to Jaspers, this is the era of history when "the spiritual foundations of humanity were laid simultaneously and independently... And these are the foundations upon which humanity still subsists today". Intellectual historian Peter Watson has summarized this period as the foundation of many of humanity's most influential philosophical traditions, including monotheism in Persia and CanaanPlatonism in Greece, BuddhismJainism and Hinduism in India, and Confucianism and Taoism in China. These ideas would become institutionalized in time, for example Ashoka's role in the spread of Buddhism, or the role of platonic philosophy in Christianity at its foundation.

Middle Ages

Present-day world religions established themselves throughout Eurasia during the Middle Ages by: Christianization of the Western world;Buddhist missions to East Asia; the decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent; and the spread of Islam throughout the Middle East,Central AsiaNorth Africa and parts of Europe and India.
During the Middle Ages, Muslims were in conflict with Zoroastrians during the Islamic conquest of PersiaChristians were in conflict with Muslims during the Byzantine-Arab WarsCrusadesReconquistaOttoman wars in Europe and InquisitionShamans were in conflict withBuddhistsTaoists, Muslims and Christians during the Mongol invasions; and Muslims were in conflict with Hindus and Sikhs during Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.
Many medieval religious movements emphasized mysticism, such as the Cathars and related movements in the West, the Jews in Spain (see Zohar), the Bhakti movement in India and Sufism in Islam. Monotheism reached definite forms in Christian Christology and in IslamicTawhidHindu monotheist notions of Brahman likewise reached their classical form with the teaching of Adi Shankara.

Modern period

European colonisation during the 15th to 19th centuries resulted in the spread of Christianity to Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas,Australia and the Philippines. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century played a major role in the rapid spread of theProtestant Reformation under leaders such as Martin Luther and John Calvin. Wars of religion followed, culminating in the Thirty Years War which ravaged central Europe, 1618-1648. The 18th century saw the beginning of secularisation in Europe, gaining momentum after the French Revolution. By the late 20th century religion had declined in most of Europe.
In the 20th century, the regimes of Communist Eastern Europe and Communist China were anti-religious. A great variety of new religious movements originated in the 20th century, many proposing syncretism of elements of established religions. Adherence to such new movements is limited, however, remaining below 2% worldwide in the 2000s (decade). Adherents of the classical world religions account for more than 75% of the world's population, while adherence to indigenous tribal religions has fallen to 4%. As of 2005, an estimated 14% of the world's population identifies as nonreligious.

Development of new religions

New Religious Movement (NRM) is a term used to refer to a religious faith or an ethical, spiritual, or philosophical movement of recent origin that is not part of an established denomination, church, or religious body.

Shamanism and ancestor worship

Polytheism

Monotheism

See also MonotheismAbrahamic religions.

Monism

Dualism

New religious movements






History of religions
founding figures
Abrahamic
 · Judaism
 · Christianity
 · Islam
 · Bahá'í Faith
Indic
 · Hinduism
 · Buddhism
 · Jainism
 · Sikhism
 · Ayyavazhi
 · Taoism
Neopagan
 · Wicca

History Timeline of World Religions and its Founders :
2,085 BC. Judaism-Abraham
1,500 BC. Hinduism- no specific founder
560 BC. Buddhism- Gautama Buddha
550 BC. Taoism - Lao Tzu
599 BC. Jainism, Mahavira
30 AD. Christianity –Jesus Christ
50-100 AD. Gnosticism-
150-250 AD. -Modalism (Monarchianism)–Sabellius, Praxeus, Noetus, Paul of Samosata
325 AD. -After being persecuted for almost 200 years Constantine made the Church becomes a legal religion,  compromise begins to enter.
590 AD.-Roman Catholicism- Developed after Constantine; Pope Gregory?
610 AD.- Islam- Mohammed
1400 AD.Rosicrucians-Christian Rosenkreuz  (1694 US) Rosicrucians- Master Kelpius, Johann Andrea
1515 AD.- Protestantism- (Reformers) Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin
1650 AD.- Tibetan Buddhism-Dalai Lama
1700 AD.- Freemasony- Albert Mackey, Albert Pike
1760 AD.-Swedenborgism- Emmanuel Swedenborg
1784 AD.- Shakers - Mother Ann Lee
1830 AD.- Mormonism – Joseph Smith
1830 AD.-Cambellites-Alexander & Thomas Cambell, Barton Stone
1838 AD.-Tenrikyo- Miki Maegawa Nakayama
1844 AD.-Christadelphians- John Thomas
1840-45 AD.-Millerites 2nd day Adventists –William Miller then became 7th Day Adventists
1844 AD.-Bahai- Baha'u'llah (Abul Baha)
1845-1870AD.- 7th Day Adventists-E.G. White
1848 AD.-Spiritualism - Kate and Margaret Fox
1870 AD.-Jehovah's Witnesses- Charles Taze Russell
1875 AD.-Theosophical Society- H.P. Blavatsky, Henry Olcott
1879 AD.-Christian Science-Mary Baker Eddy
1889-1924 AD.-Unity School of Christianity- Myrtle Fillmore
1900 AD.-Rosicrucian Fellowship-Max Heindel
1902 AD.- Anthroposophical Society –Rudolf Steiner
1906 AD. -The Pentecostal Assemblies of the World
1914 AD.- Iglesia ni Cristo- Felix Manalo
1914 AD.- Oneness Pentecostalism- Frank Ewart, G.T.Haywood, Glenn Cook
1917 AD.-True Jesus Church. Founders Paul Wei, Lingsheng Chang and Barnabas Chang
1930 AD. -Black Muslims (Nation of Islam) –Wallace D. Fard
1927 AD.- Mind Science- Ernest Holmes
1934 AD.-World Wide Church of God- Herbert W. Armstrong
1935 AD.-Self Realization Fellowship- Paramahansa Yogananda
1954 AD.- Unification Church- Sun Myung Moon
1945 AD. -The Way -Victor P.Wierwille
1948 AD.- Latter Rain –Franklin Hall, George Warnock.
1964 AD.- Eckankar The Ancient Science of Soul Travel (Eck).  Founded by Paul Twitchell
1968 AD.- Hare Krishna (US)- Swami Prabhupada
1968 AD.- Children of God- David (Moses) Berg
1945 AD.-United Pentecostal International- Howard Goss, W.T. Witherspoon (can be traced back to 1914)
1944 AD.- Silva Mind Control –Jose Silva
1950 AD.-Urantia Book- Dr. Bill Sadler
1950 AD.-Lafayette Ronald Hubbard published his book Dianetics-SCIENTOLOGY
1954 AD.-Atherius Society (UFO’s)- Dr. George King
1955 AD.- Scientology- L. Ron Hubbard
1958 AD.- Institute of Divine Metaphysical Research- Henry Kinley
1958-1970 AD.- Church Universal and Triumphant –Mark and E.C. Prophet
1958 AD. -Henry Kinley begins (IDMR) the Institute of Divine Metaphysical Research
1959 AD.-Unitariarian Universalist
1960 AD.-Transcendental meditation- Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
1960 AD.-Enkankar- Paul Twitchell
1961 AD.- Unitarian Universalism was officially formed.
1965 AD.-Assembly of Yahweh-Jacob Meyer
1966 AD.- Church of Satan –Anton LaVey
1970 AD.-Findhorn Community –Peter and Eileen Caddy –David Spangler
1970 AD.- Divine light Mission- Guru Maharaj Ji
1973 AD.- CARP was established in the United States.  [The Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles] to introduce the teachings of un Myung Moon.
1974 AD.-Assemblies of Yahweh-Sam Suratt
1979 AD.-Church of Christ International - Kip McKean
1980 -1982 AD.- Tara Center-Benjamen Crème
1980 AD.- House of Yahweh (Abilene) Jacob Hawkins


Evolutionary origin of religions

The evolutionary origin of religions theorizes about the emergence of religious behavior during the course of human evolution.

Nonhuman religious behaviour


Humanity’s closest living relatives are common chimpanzees and bonobos. These primates share a common ancestor with humans who lived between four and six million years ago. It is for this reason that chimpanzees and bonobos are viewed as the best available surrogate for this common ancestor. Barbara King argues that while non-human primates are not religious, they do exhibit some traits that would have been necessary for the evolution of religion. These traits include high intelligence, a capacity for symbolic communication, a sense of social norms, realization of "self" and a concept of continuity. There is inconclusive evidence that Homo neanderthalensis may have buried their dead which is evidence of the use of ritual. The use of burial rituals is evidence of religious activity, but there is no other evidence that religion existed in human culture before humans reached behavioral modernity.

Marc Bekoff, Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, argues that many species grieve death and loss.

Setting the stage for human religion


Increased brain size


In this set of theories, the religious mind is one consequence of a brain that is large enough to formulate religious and philosophical ideas. During human evolution, the hominid brain tripled in size, peaking 500,000 years ago. Much of the brain's expansion took place in the neocortex. This part of the brain is involved in processing higher order cognitive functions that are connected with human religiosity. The neocortex is associated with self-consciousness, language and emotion. According to Dunbar's theory, the relative neocortex size of any species correlates with the level of social complexity of the particular species. The neocortex size correlates with a number of social variables that include social group size and complexity of mating behaviors. In chimpanzees the neocortex occupies 50% of the brain, whereas in modern humans it occupies 80% of the brain.

Robin Dunbar argues that the critical event in the evolution of the neocortex took place at the speciation of archaic homo sapiens about 500,000 years ago. His study indicates that only after the speciation event is the neocortex large enough to process complex social phenomena such as language and religion. The study is based on a regression analysis of neocortex size plotted against a number of social behaviors of living and extinct hominids.

Stephen Jay Gould suggests that religion may have grown out of evolutionary changes which favored larger brains as a means of cementing group coherence among savannah hunters, after that larger brain enabled reflection on the inevitability of personal mortality.

Tool use


Lewis Wolpert argues that causal beliefs that emerged from tool use played a major role in the evolution of belief. The manufacture of complex tools requires creating a mental image of an object that does not exist naturally before actually making the artifact. Furthermore, one must understand how the tool would be used, which requires an understanding of causality. Accordingly, the level of sophistication of stone tools is a useful indicator of causal beliefs. Wolpert contends use of tools composed of more than one component, such as hand axes, represents an ability to understand cause and effect. However, recent studies of other primates indicate that causality may not be a uniquely human trait. For example, chimpanzees have escaped from pens that were closed with multiple latches, that were previously thought could only have been figured out by humans who understood causality. Chimpanzees are also known to mourn the dead, and notice things that have only aesthetic value, like sunsets, both of which may be considered to be components of religion or spirituality.The difference between the comprehension of causality by humans and chimpanzees is one of degree. The degree of comprehension in an animal depends upon the size of the prefrontal cortex: the greater the size of the prefrontal cortex the deeper the comprehension.

Development of language



Religion requires a system of symbolic communication, such as language, to be transmitted from one individual to another. Philip Lieberman states "human religious thought and moral sense clearly rest on a cognitive-linguistic base". From this premise science writer Nicholas Wade states:

"Like most behaviors that are found in societies throughout the world, religion must have been present in the ancestral human population before the dispersal from Africa 50,000 years ago. Although religious rituals usually involve dance and music, they are also very verbal, since the sacred truths have to be stated. If so, religion, at least in its modern form, cannot pre-date the emergence of language. It has been argued earlier that language attained its modern state shortly before the exodus from Africa. If religion had to await the evolution of modern, articulate language, then it too would have emerged shortly before 50,000 years ago."

Another view distinguishes individual religious belief from collective religious belief. While the former does not require prior development of language, the latter does. The individual human brain has to explain a phenomenon in order to comprehend and relate to it. This activity predates by far the emergence of language and may have caused it. The theory is, belief in the supernatural emerges from hypotheses arbitrarily assumed by individuals to explain natural phenomena that cannot be explained otherwise. The resulting need to share individual hypotheses with others leads eventually to collective religious belief. A socially accepted hypothesis becomes dogmatic backed by social sanction.

Morality and group living



Frans de Waal and Barbara King both view human morality as having grown out of primate sociality. Though morality awareness may be a unique human trait, many social animals, such as primates, dolphins and whales, have been known to exhibit pre-moral sentiments. According to Michael Shermer, the following characteristics are shared by humans and other social animals, particularly the great apes:

"attachment and bonding, cooperation and mutual aid, sympathy and empathy, direct and indirect reciprocity, altruism and reciprocal altruism, conflict resolution and peacemaking, deception and deception detection, community concern and caring about what others think about you, and awareness of and response to the social rules of the group".

De Waal contends that all social animals have had to restrain or alter their behavior for group living to be worthwhile. Pre-moral sentiments evolved in primate societies as a method of restraining individual selfishness and building more cooperative groups. For any social species, the benefits of being part of an altruistic group should outweigh the benefits of individualism. For example, lack of group cohesion could make individuals more vulnerable to attack from outsiders. Being part of a group may also improve the chances of finding food. This is evident among animals that hunt in packs to take down large or dangerous prey.

All social animals have hierarchical societies in which each member knows its own place. Social order is maintained by certain rules of expected behavior and dominant group members enforce order through punishment. However, higher order primates also have a sense of reciprocity and fairness. Chimpanzees remember who did them favors and who did them wrong. For example, chimpanzees are more likely to share food with individuals who have previously groomed them.

Chimpanzees live in fission-fusion groups that average 50 individuals. It is likely that early ancestors of humans lived in groups of similar size. Based on the size of extant hunter-gatherer societies, recent Paleolithic hominids lived in bands of a few hundred individuals. As community size increased over the course of human evolution, greater enforcement to achieve group cohesion would have been required. Morality may have evolved in these bands of 100 to 200 people as a means of social control, conflict resolution and group solidarity. According to Dr. de Waal, human morality has two extra levels of sophistication that are not found in primate societies. Humans enforce their society’s moral codes much more rigorously with rewards, punishments and reputation building. Humans also apply a degree of judgment and reason not otherwise seen in the animal kingdom.

Psychologist Matt J. Rossano argues that religion emerged after morality and built upon morality by expanding the social scrutiny of individual behavior to include supernatural agents. By including ever-watchful ancestors, spirits and gods in the social realm, humans discovered an effective strategy for restraining selfishness and building more cooperative groups. The adaptive value of religion would have enhanced group survival. Rossano is referring here to collective religious belief and the social sanction that institutionalized morality. According to Rossano's teaching, individual religious belief is thus initially epistemological, not ethical, in nature.

Evolutionary psychology of religion



There is general agreement among cognitive scientists that religion is an outgrowth of brain architecture that evolved early in human history. However, there is disagreement on the exact mechanisms that drove the evolution of the religious mind. The two main schools of thought hold that either religion evolved due to natural selection and has selective advantage, or that religion is an evolutionary byproduct of other mental adaptations. Stephen Jay Gould, for example, believed that religion was an exaptation or a spandrel, in other words that religion evolved as byproduct of psychological mechanisms that evolved for other reasons.

Such mechanisms may include the ability to infer the presence of organisms that might do harm (agent detection), the ability to come up with causal narratives for natural events (etiology), and the ability to recognize that other people have minds of their own with their own beliefs, desires and intentions (theory of mind). These three adaptations (among others) allow human beings to imagine purposeful agents behind many observations that could not readily be explained otherwise, e.g. thunder, lightning, movement of planets, complexity of life, etc. The emergence of collective religious belief identified the agents as deities that standardized the explanation.

Some scholars have suggested that religion is genetically "hardwired" into the human condition. One controversial hypothesis, the God gene hypothesis, states that some variants of a specific gene, the VMAT2 gene, predispose to spirituality.

Another view is based on the concept of the triune brain: the reptilian brain, the limbic system, and the neocortex, proposed by Paul D. MacLean. Collective religious belief draws upon the emotions of love, fear, and gregariousness and is deeply embedded in the limbic system through sociobiological conditioning and social sanction. Individual religious belief utilizes reason based in the neocortex and often varies from collective religion. The limbic system is much older in evolutionary terms than the neocortex and is, therefore, stronger than it much in the same way as the reptilian is stronger than both the limbic system and the neocortex. Reason is pre-empted by emotional drives. The religious feeling in a congregation is emotionally different from individual spirituality even though the congregation is composed of individuals. Belonging to a collective religion is culturally more important than individual spirituality though the two often go hand in hand. This is one of the reasons why religious debates are likely to be inconclusive.
Yet another view is that the behaviour of people who participate in a religion makes them feel better and this improves their fitness, so that there is a genetic selection in favor of people who are willing to believe in religion. Specifically, rituals, beliefs, and the social contact typical of religious groups may serve to calm the mind (for example by reducing ambiguity and the uncertainty due to complexity) and allow it to function better when under stress. This would allow religion to be used as a powerful survival mechanism, particularly in facilitating the evolution of hierarchies of warriors, which if true, may be why many modern religions tend to promote fertility and kinship.
Still another view is that human religion was a product of an increase in dopaminergic functions in the human brain and a general intellectual expansion beginning around 80 kya. Dopamine promotes an emphasis on distant space and time, which is critical for the establishment of religious experience. While the earliest shamanic cave paintings date back around 40 kya, the use of ochre for rock art predates this and there is clear evidence for abstract thinking along the coast of South Africa by 80 kya.

Prehistoric evidence of religion

When humans first became religious remains unknown, but there is credible evidence of religious behavior from the Middle Paleolithic era (300–500 thousand years ago) and possibly earlier.

Paleolithic burials

The earliest evidence of religious thought is based on the ritual treatment of the dead. Most animals display only a casual interest in the dead of their own species. Ritual burial thus represents a significant change in human behavior. Ritual burials represent an awareness of life and death and a possible belief in the afterlifePhilip Lieberman states "burials with grave goods clearly signify religious practices and concern for the dead that transcends daily life."
The earliest evidence for treatment of the dead comes from Atapuerca in Spain. At this location the bones of 30 individuals believed to beHomo heidelbergensis have been found in a pit. Neanderthals are also contenders for the first hominids to intentionally bury the dead. They may have placed corpses into shallow graves along with stone tools and animal bones. The presence of these grave goods may indicate an emotional connection with the deceased and possibly a belief in the afterlife. Neanderthal burial sites include Shanidar in Iraq and Krapina in Croatia and Kebara Cave in Israel.
The earliest known burial of modern humans is from a cave in Israel located at Qafzeh. Human remains have been dated to 100,000 years ago. Human skeletons were found stained with red ochre. A variety of grave goods were found at the burial site. The mandible of a wild boar was found placed in the arms of one of the skeletons. Philip Lieberman states:
"Burial rituals incorporating grave goods may have been invented by the anatomically modern hominids who emigrated from Africa to the Middle East roughly 100,000 years ago".
Matt Rossano suggests that the period in between 80,000–60,000 years after humans retreated from the Levant to Africa was a crucial period in the evolution of religion.

The use of symbolism

The use of symbolism in religion is a universal established phenomenon. Archeologist Steven Mithen contends that it is common for religious practices to involve the creation of images and symbols to represent supernatural beings and ideas. Because supernatural beings violate the principles of the natural world, there will always be difficulty in communicating and sharing supernatural concepts with others. This problem can be overcome by anchoring these supernatural beings in material form through representational art. When translated into material form, supernatural concepts become easier to communicate and understand. Due to the association of art and religion, evidence of symbolism in the fossil record is indicative of a mind capable of religious thoughts. Art and symbolism demonstrates a capacity for abstract thought and imagination necessary to construct religious ideas. Wentzel van Huyssteen states that the translation of the non-visible through symbolism enabled early human ancestors to hold beliefs in abstract terms.
Some of the earliest evidence of symbolic behavior is associated with Middle Stone Age sites in Africa. From at least 100,000 years ago, there is evidence of the use of pigments such as red ochre. Pigments are of little practical use to hunter gatherers, thus evidence of their use is interpreted as symbolic or for ritual purposes. Among extant hunter gatherer populations around the world, red ochre is still used extensively for ritual purposes. It has been argued that it is universal among human cultures for the color red to represent blood, sex, life and death.
The use of red ochre as a proxy for symbolism is often criticized as being too indirect. Some scientists, such as Richard Klein and Steven Mithen, only recognize unambiguous forms of art as representative of abstract ideas. Upper paleolithic cave art provides some of the most unambiguous evidence of religious thought from the paleolithic. Cave paintings at Chauvet depict creatures that are half human and half animal.

Origins of organized religion

Social evolution of humans 
Period years agoSociety typeNumber of individuals
100,000–10,000Bands10s–100s
10,000–5,000Tribes100s–1,000s
5,000–3,000Chiefdoms1,000s–10,000s
3,000–1,000States10,000s–100,000s
2,000*–presentEmpires100,000–1,000,000s
Organized religion traces its roots to the neolithic revolution that began 11,000 years ago in the Near East but may have occurred independently in several other locations around the world. The invention of agriculture transformed many human societies from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to asedentary lifestyle. The consequences of the neolithic revolution included a population explosion and an acceleration in the pace of technological development. The transition from foraging bands to states and empires precipitated more specialized and developed forms of religion that reflected the new social and political environment. While bands and small tribes possess supernatural beliefs, these beliefs do not serve to justify a central authority, justify transfer of wealth or maintain peace between unrelated individuals. Organized religion emerged as a means of providing social and economic stability through the following ways:
  • Justifying the central authority, which in turn possessed the right to collect taxes in return for providing social and security services.
  • Bands and tribes consist of small number of related individuals. However, states and nations are composed of many thousands of unrelated individuals. Jared Diamond argues that organized religion served to provide a bond between unrelated individuals who would otherwise be more prone to enmity. He argues that the leading cause of death among hunter-gatherer societies is murder.
  • Religions that revolved around moralizing gods may have facilitated the rise of large, cooperative groups of unrelated individuals.
The states born out of the Neolithic revolution, such as those of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, were theocracies with chiefs, kings and emperors playing dual roles of political and spiritual leaders. Anthropologists have found that virtually all state societies and chiefdoms from around the world have been found to justify political power through divine authority. This suggests that political authority co-opts collective religious belief to bolster itself.

Invention of writing

Following the neolithic revolution, the pace of technological development (cultural evolution) intensified due to the invention of writing 5000 years ago. Symbols that became words later on made effective communication of ideas possible. Printing invented only over a thousand years ago increased the speed of communication exponentially and became the main spring of cultural evolution. Writing is thought to have been first invented in either Sumeria or Ancient Egypt and was initially used for accounting. Soon after, writing was used to record myth. The first religious texts mark the beginning of religious history. The Pyramid Texts from ancient Egypt are one of the oldest known religious texts in the world, dating to between 2400–2300 BCE. Writing played a major role in sustaining and spreading organized religion. In pre-literate societies, religious ideas were based on an oral tradition, the contents of which were articulated by shamans and remained limited to the collective memories of the society's inhabitants. With the advent of writing, information that was not easy to remember could easily be stored in sacred texts that were maintained by a select group (clergy). Humans could store and process large amounts of information with writing that otherwise would have been forgotten. Writing therefore enabled religions to develop coherent and comprehensive doctrinal systems that remained independent of time and place. Writing also brought a measure of objectivity to human knowledge. Formulation of thoughts in words and the requirement for validation made mutual exchange of ideas and the sifting of generally acceptable from not acceptable ideas possible. The generally acceptable ideas became objective knowledge reflecting the continuously evolving framework of human awareness of reality that Karl Popper calls 'verisimilitude' – a stage on the human journey to truth.

Sacred-texts
Sacred Time index  Timeline of Sacred Texts 

Origin of Major Religions

This table indicates the approximate date each of the twelve major world religions began, along with the traditional dates for the birth and death of its founder (if applicable). You can click on each religions' link to start reading about it.
This list of twelve world religions is, of course, an oversimplification. Also, keep in mind that there are religions (such as the belief systems of Native American and Australian Aborigine peoples) that go back much further than Hinduism, and there have been several large religions that have started since Baha'i.
The 'Common Era' refers to 1 A.D. CE=Common Era, BCE=Before Common Era
dateNear EastIndiaChina/Japan
1000+ BCE
Judaism
:
Moses 1500-1350 BCE

Hinduism
:
2000 BCE
600 BCEZoroastrianism:
Zoroaster 628-527 BCE
Jainism:
Mahavira 599-527 BCE

Buddhism
:
Buddha 563-483 BCE

Taoism
:
Lao Tse 580-500 BCE
Confucianism:
Confucius 551-479 BCE
100 CE
Christianity
:
Jesus 1-33 CE

Shinto
:
100 CE
600 CE
Islam
:
Muhammad 570-632 CE
1500 CESikhism:
Guru Nanak 1469-1538 CE
1900 CEBaha'i:
Baha'u'llah 1817-1892 CE


-Animated map shows how religion spread around the world :



Judaism(from the LatinIudaismus, derived from the Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודהYehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew: יהדותYahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religionphilosophyculture and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is a monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel.
Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God reveale d his laws and commandments toMoses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah. Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period; the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period; and among segments of the modern reform movements. Liberal movements in modern times such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism andModern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of theRabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Historically, special courtsenforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Of the major world religions, Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. TheHebrews / Israelites were already referred to as "Jews" in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel".Judaism's texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including ChristianityIslam and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.
Star of David
The Star of David, the symbol of the Jewish faith and people. Also called Shield of David after the Hebrew Magen David
     Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments, In SVG
                                                                             
The menorah (/məˈnɔrə/Hebrewמְנוֹרָה‎ [mənoːˈɾaː]) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresholive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps. The menorah has been a symbol of Judaism since ancient times and is the emblem on the coat of arms of the modern state of Israe

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia. It includes Shaivism,Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum oflaws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karmadharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion followers is theworld's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam.
Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way" beyond human origins. Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder. It prescribes the "eternal" duties, such as honesty, mercy, purity, self-restraint, among others.

Hindu practices include daily rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Select group of ascetics leave the common world and engage in lifelong ascetic practices to achieve moksha.
Om.svg


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- Buddhism  :

Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in eastern India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.
The word Buddha means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one". "Buddha" is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. In most Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (Pali sammāsambuddhaSanskritsamyaksaṃbuddha) of our age. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movementcommon in his region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such asMagadha and Kośala.

Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism and accounts of his life, discourses, andmonastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.



Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra).jpg
A statue of the Buddha from Sarnath, 4th century CE


-VIDEO :The Life Of The Buddha Full BBC Documentary

















Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/;Arabicالإسلام‎, al-ʾIslām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm] is amonotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, an Islamic holy bookconsidered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and for the vast majority of adherents, also by the teachings, normative example and way of life (orsunnah); it also is composed of prophetic traditions (or hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim (sometimes spelled Moslem)
"Allah" in Arabic calligraphy




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English: Stained glass at St John the Baptist's Anglican ChurchAshfieldNew South Wales. Illustrates Jesus' description of himself "I am the Good Shepherd" (from the Gospel of John, chapter 10, verse 11). This version of the image shows a close up of the key features of the scene. The memorial window is also captioned: "To the Glory of God and in Loving Memory of William Wright. Died 6th November, 1932. Aged 70 Yrs."


Christianity (from the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of theHebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latinsuffixes -ian and -itas) is an Abrahamicmonotheistic religion based on the life and oral teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion adherents, known as Christians. Christians believe that Jesus has a "unique significance" in the world. Most Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God,fully divine and fully human, and the saviour of humanity whose coming was prophesied in the Old Testament. Consequently, Christians refer to Jesus as Christor the Messiah.
The foundations of Christian theology are expressed in ecumenical creeds. These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrectedfrom the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father. Most Christian denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge everyone, living and dead, and to grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life. His ministrycrucifixion, and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel", meaning "good news" (a loan translation of the Greekεὐαγγέλιον euangélion). The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus's life and teaching, four of which – the Gospels of MatthewMarkLuke, and John – are considered canonical and included in Christian Bibles.
Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century.Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East, it quickly spread to EuropeSyria,MesopotamiaAsia Minor, and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, and adherents were gained in the Middle EastNorth AfricaEthiopia, and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the AmericasAustralasiasub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.

Worldwide, the three largest groups of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the schism of the 11th century, and Protestantism came into existence during the Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.




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Christianity > Anglican | Catholic | Evangelical | Jehovah's Witnesses | Latter-day Saints | Orthodox | Pentecostal 
Islam | Hinduism | Buddhism | Sikhism | Judaism | Baha'i | Zoroastrianism | more links

Major Religions of the World
Ranked by Number of Adherents

Adherent estimates

Size of Major Religious Groups, 2012
ReligionPercent
Christianity
  
31.5%
Islam
  
23.2%
Unaffiliated
  
16.3%
Hinduism
  
15.0%
Buddhism *
  
7.1%
Folk
  
5.9%
Other
  
0.8%
Judaism
  
0.2%
Pew Research Center, 2012
Adherents.com says "Sizes shown are approximate estimates, and are here mainly for the purpose of ordering the groups, not providing a definitive number".[2]
ReligionAdherentspercents
Christianity2.2 billion[3]31.50%
Islam1.6 billion[4]22.32%
Secular[a]/Nonreligious[b]/Agnostic/Atheist≤1.1 billion15.35%
Hinduism1 billion13.95%
Chinese traditional religion[c]394 million5.50%
Buddhism376 million5.25%
Ethnic religions excluding some in separate categories300 million4.19%
African traditional religions100 million1.40%
Sikhism23 million0.32%
Spiritism15 million0.21%
Judaism14 million0.20%
Bahá'í7.0 million0.10%
Jainism4.2 million0.06%
Shinto4.0 million0.06%
Cao Dai4.0 million0.06%
Zoroastrianism2.6 million0.04%
Tenrikyo2.0 million0.03%
Neo-Paganism1.0 million0.01%
Unitarian Universalism0.8 million0.01%
Rastafarianism0.6 million0.01%
total7167 million100%
(

Notes

  1. Jump up^ These figures may incorporate populations of secular/nominal adherents as well as syncretist worshipers, although the concept of syncretism is disputed by some.
  2. Jump up^ Nonreligious includes agnostic, atheist, secular humanist, and people answering 'none' or no religious preference. Half of this group is theistic but nonreligious.According to a 2012 study by Gallup International "59% of the world said that they think of themselves as religious person , 23% think of themselves as not religious whereas 13% think of themselves as convinced atheists".
  3. Jump up^ Chinese traditional religion is described as "the common religion of the majority Chinese culture: a combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, as well as the traditional non-scriptural/local practices and beliefs."

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